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FIRST AID:
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'MINOR' BUMPS, BRUISES, BURNS, BITES, CUTS, etc. - Learn more at https://www.mayoclinic.org/first-aid/first-aid-burns/basics/art-20056649

  • for a free and natural antibiotic, learn to recognize Plantain/Plantago broad leaf or narrow leaf, which grows almost everywhere, chew it up and place it on affected area.
  • to stop bleeding, you can use hand pressure and Plantain/Plantago broad leaf or narrow leaf, it is also a blood coagulant/thickener
  • elevate injured area if possible to keep the blood from flowing there
  • for burns and bruises, use cool to cold water as soon as possible, then apply a cold compress for several minutes, or until it becomes too cold or uncomfortable (a bag of frozen peas or small beans wrapped in a thin cloth works well as a compress)
     

BROKEN BONES - Source: https://www.mayoclinic.org/first-aid/first-aid-fractures/basics/art-20056641

  • A fracture is a broken bone. It requires medical attention. If the broken bone is the result of major trauma or injury, call 911 or your local emergency number. Also call for emergency help if:

    • The person is unresponsive, isn't breathing or isn't moving. Begin CPR if there's no breathing or heartbeat.
    • There is heavy bleeding.
    • Even gentle pressure or movement causes pain.
    • The limb or joint appears deformed.
    • The bone has pierced the skin.
    • The extremity of the injured arm or leg, such as a toe or finger, is numb or bluish at the tip.
    • You suspect a bone is broken in the neck, head or back.
  • Don't move the person except if necessary to avoid further injury. Take these actions immediately while waiting for medical help:

    • Stop any bleeding. Apply pressure to the wound with a sterile bandage, a clean cloth or a clean piece of clothing.
    • Immobilize the injured area. Don't try to realign the bone or push a bone that's sticking out back in. If you've been trained in how to splint and professional help isn't readily available, apply a splint to the area above and below the fracture sites. Padding the splints can help reduce discomfort.
    • Apply ice packs to limit swelling and help relieve pain. Don't apply ice directly to the skin. Wrap the ice in a towel, piece of cloth or some other material.
    • Treat for shock. If the person feels faint or is breathing in short, rapid breaths, lay the person down with the head slightly lower than the trunk and, if possible, elevate the legs.

CPR for adults - Source: https://www.redcross.org/take-a-class/cpr/performing-cpr/hands-only-cpr

  • Place the heel of one hand on the center of the chest.
  • Place the heel of the other hand on top of the first hand, then lace your fingers together.
  • Position your body so that your shoulders are directly over your hands, and keep your arms straight.
  • Push hard, push fast. Use your body weight to help you administer compressions that are at least 2 inches deep and delivered at a rate of at least 100 compressions per minute. (Just be sure to let chest rise completely between compressions.
  • Keep pushing. Continue hands-only CPR until you see obvious signs of life, like breathing, another trained responder or EMS professional can take over, you're too exhausted to continue, an AED becomes available, or the scene becomes unsafe. To see how to perform hands-only CPR, watch our video
     

CPR for infants or children -  Source: https://www.redcross.org/take-a-class/cpr/performing-cpr/child-baby-cpr 

  • Deliver 2 rescue breaths if the child or infant isn't breathing.
  • With the head tilted back slightly and the chin lifted,
  • pinch the child's nose shut,
  • make a complete seal by placing your mouth over the child's mouth
  •  and breathe into the child's mouth twice.
  • For infants, use your mouth to make a complete seal over the infant's mouth and nose,
  • then blow in for one second to make the chest clearly rise.
  • Now, deliver two rescue breaths.

DROWNING - Source: https://www.webmd.com/first-aid/drowning-treatment 

  • Call 911 or notify lifeguard if someone is drowning.
    If you are alone, follow the steps below.
  • Move the Person - Take the person out of the water
  • Check for Breathing - Place your ear next to the person's mouth and nose. Do you feel air on your cheek? Look to see if the person's chest is moving
  • If the Person is Not Breathing, Check the person's pulse for 10 seconds.
  • If There is No Pulse, Start CPR:
  • Carefully place person on back.
  • For an adult or child, place the heel of one hand on the center of the chest at the nipple line. You can also push with one hand on top of the other. For an infant, place two fingers on the breastbone.
  • For an adult or child, press down at least 2 inches. Make sure not to press on ribs.
  • For an infant, press down about 1 and 1/2 inches. Make sure not to press on the end of the breastbone.
  • Do chest compressions only, at the rate of 100-120 per minute or more. Let the chest rise completely between pushes
  • Check to see if the person has started breathing
  • Repeat if Person Is Still Not Breathing
  • Note that these instructions are not meant to replace CPR training. Classes are available through the American Red Cross, local hospitals, and other organizations
  • If you've been trained in CPR, you can now open the airway by tilting the head back and lifting the chin.
  • Pinch the nose of the victim closed. Take a normal breath, cover the victim's mouth with yours to create an airtight seal, and then give 2 one-second breaths as you watch for the chest to rise.
  • Give 2 breaths followed by 30 chest compressions
  • Continue this cycle of 30 compressions and 2 breaths until the person starts breathing or emergency help arrives.